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To convert MATLAB^{®} code to efficient C/C++ code, the code generator introduces optimizations
that intentionally cause the generated code to behave differently, and sometimes produce
different results, than the original source code.

Here are some of the differences:

When you run your program, run-time error checks can detect some of these differences. By default, run-time error checks are enabled for MEX code and disabled for standalone C/C++ code. To help you identify and address differences before you deploy code, the code generator reports a subset of the differences as potential differences.

Certain mathematical operations, such as singular value decomposition and eigenvalue decomposition of a matrix, can have multiple answers. Two different algorithms implementing such an operation can return different outputs for identical input values. Two different implementations of the same algorithm can also exhibit the same behavior.

For such mathematical operations, the corresponding functions in the generated
code and MATLAB might return different outputs for identical input values. To see if a
function has this behavior, in the corresponding function reference page, see the
**C/C++ Code Generation** section under **Extended
Capabilities**. Examples of such functions include `svd`

and `eig`

.

`ans`

VariableWhen you run MATLAB code that returns an output without specifying an output argument,
MATLAB implicitly writes the output to the `ans`

variable. If the variable
`ans`

already exists in the workspace, MATLAB updates its value to the output returned.

The code generated from such MATLAB code does not implicitly write the output to an `ans`

variable.

For example, define the MATLAB function `foo`

that explicitly creates an
`ans`

variable in the first line. The function then implicitly
updates the value of `ans`

when the second line executes.

function foo %#codegen ans = 1; 2; disp(ans); end

Run `foo`

at the command line. The final value of
`ans`

, which is `2`

, is displayed at the
command line.

foo

2

Generate a MEX function from `foo`

.

`codegen foo`

Run the generated MEX function `foo_mex`

. This function
explicitly creates the `ans`

variable and assigns the value
`1`

to it. But `foo_mex`

does not implicitly
update the value of `ans`

to `2`

.

foo_mex

1

Suppose that your MATLAB code has the logical operators `&`

and `|`

placed inside square brackets
(`[`

and `]`

). For such code patterns, the
generated code does not employ short-circuiting behavior for these logical
operators, but MATLAB execution might employ short-circuiting behavior. See Logical Short-Circuiting.

For example, define the MATLAB function `foo`

that uses the `&`

operator inside square brackets in the conditional expression of an
`if...end`

block.

function foo if [returnsFalse() & hasSideEffects()] end end function out = returnsFalse out = false; end function out = hasSideEffects out = true; disp('This is my string'); end

The first argument of the `&`

operator is always
`false`

and determines the value of the conditional expression. So,
in MATLAB execution, short-circuiting is employed and the second argument is not
evaluated. So, `foo`

does not call the
`hasSideEffects`

function during execution and does not display
anything at the command line.

Generate a MEX function for `foo`

. Call the generated MEX
function `foo_mex`

.

foo_mex

This is my string

In the generated code, short-circuiting is not employed. So, the
`hasSideEffects`

function is called and the string is displayed
at the command line.

Suppose that a `for`

-loop end value is equal to or close to
the maximum or minimum value for the loop index data type. In the generated code, the last
increment or decrement of the loop index might cause the index variable to overflow. The
index overflow might result in an infinite loop.

When memory integrity checks are enabled, if the code generator detects that the loop index might overflow, it reports an error. The software error checking is conservative. It might incorrectly report a loop index overflow. By default, memory-integrity checks are enabled for MEX code and disabled for standalone C/C++ code. See Why Test MEX Functions in MATLAB? and Generate Standalone C/C++ Code That Detects and Reports Run-Time Errors.

To avoid a loop index overflow, use the workarounds in this table.

Loop Conditions Causing the Potential Overflow | Workaround |
---|---|

The loop index increments by 1. The end value equals the maximum value of the integer type.
| If the loop does not have to cover the full range of the integer type, rewrite the loop so that the end value is not equal to the maximum value of the integer type. For example, replace: N=intmax('int16') for k=N-10:N for k=1:10 |

The loop index decrements by 1. The end value equals the minimum value of the integer type.
| If the loop does not have to cover the full range of the integer type, rewrite the loop so that the end value is not equal to the minimum value of the integer type. For example, replace: N=intmin('int32') for k=N+10:-1:N for k=10:-1:1 |

The loop index increments or decrements by 1. The start value equals the minimum or maximum value of the integer type. The end value equals the maximum or minimum value of the integer type.
| If the loop must cover the full range of the integer type, cast the type of the loop start, step, and end values to a bigger integer or to double. For example, rewrite: M= intmin('int16'); N= intmax('int16'); for k=M:N % Loop body end M= intmin('int16'); N= intmax('int16'); for k=int32(M):int32(N) % Loop body end |

The loop index increments or decrements by a value not equal to 1. On the last loop iteration, the loop index is not equal to the end value.
| Rewrite the loop so that the loop index in the last loop iteration is equal to the end value. |

`for`

Loops by Using Single Precision OperandsSuppose in your MATLAB code, you are indexing a `for`

loop that has a colon
operator, where at least one of the colon operands is a single type operand and the number
of iterations is greater than `flintmax('single') = 16777216`

. When all
these conditions are true, code generation might generate run-time or compile-time errors
because the generated code calculates different values for the loop index variable than the
values that MATLAB calculates.

For example, consider this MATLAB code:

function j = singlePIndex n = flintmax('single') + 2; j = single(0); for i = single(1):single(n) j = i; end end

This code snippet executes in MATLAB, but it causes a compile-time or run-time error because the value of
the loop index variable, `i`

, is calculated differently in the
generated code. The code generator displays a compile-time or run-time error and
stops code generation or execution to prevent this discrepancy.

To avoid this discrepancy, replace the single type operands with double type or integer type operands.

For more information on run-time errors, see Generate Standalone C/C++ Code That Detects and Reports Run-Time Errors.

`for`

LoopIn your MATLAB code and generated code, after a `for`

loop execution
is complete, the value of the index variable is equal to its value during the final
iteration of the `for`

loop.

In MATLAB, if the loop does not execute, the value of the index variable is stored as [ ] (empty matrix). In generated code, if the loop does not execute, the value of the index variable is different than the MATLAB index variable.

If you provide the

`for`

loop start and end variables at run time, the value of the index variable is equal to the start of the range. For example, consider this MATLAB code:function out = indexTest(a,b) for i = a:b end out = i; end

Suppose that

`a`

and`b`

are passed as`1`

and`-1`

. The`for`

loop does not execute. In MATLAB,`out`

is assigned [ ]. In the generated code,`out`

is assigned the value of`a`

, which is`1`

.If you provide the

`for`

loop start and end values before compile time, the value of the index variable is assigned [ ] in both MATLAB and the generated code. Consider this MATLAB code:function out = indexTest for i = 1:-1 end out = i; end

In both MATLAB and the generated code,

`out`

is assigned [ ].

MATLAB supports 16-bit characters, but the generated code represents characters in 8 bits, the standard size for most embedded languages like C. See Encoding of Characters in Code Generation.

Generated code does not enforce the order of evaluation in expressions. For most expressions, the order of evaluation is not significant. For expressions that have side effects, the generated code might produce the side effects in a different order from the original MATLAB code. Expressions that produce side effects include those that:

Modify persistent or global variables

Display data to the screen

Write data to files

Modify the properties of handle class objects

In addition, the generated code does not enforce order of evaluation of logical operators that do not short circuit.

For more predictable results, it is good coding practice to split expressions that depend on the order of evaluation into multiple statements.

Rewrite

A = f1() + f2();

as

A = f1(); A = A + f2();

so that the generated code calls

`f1`

before`f2`

.Assign the outputs of a multi-output function call to variables that do not depend on one another. For example, rewrite

[y, y.f, y.g] = foo;

as

[y, a, b] = foo; y.f = a; y.g = b;

When you access the contents of multiple cells of a cell array, assign the results to variables that do not depend on one another. For example, rewrite

[y, y.f, y.g] = z{:};

as

[y, a, b] = z{:}; y.f = a; y.g = b;

MATLAB and code generation follow different precedence rules for resolving
names that follow the symbol `@`

. These rules do not apply to
anonymous functions. The precedence rules are summarized in this table.

Expression | Precedence Order in MATLAB | Precedence Order in Code Generation |
---|---|---|

An expression that does not contain periods, for example
`@x` | Nested function, local function, private function, path function | Local variable, nested function, local function, private function, path function |

An expression that contains exactly one period, for example
`@x.y` | Local variable, path function | Local variable, path function (Same as MATLAB) |

An expression that contains more than one period, for example
`@x.y.z` | Path function | Local variable, path function |

If `x`

is a local variable that is itself a function handle,
generated code and MATLAB interpret the expression `@x`

differently:

MATLAB produces an error.

Generated code interprets

`@x`

as the function handle of`x`

itself.

Here is an example that shows this difference in behavior for an expression that contains two periods.

Suppose that your current working folder contains a package `x`

,
which contains another package `y`

, which contains the function
`z`

. The current working folder also contains the entry-point
function `foo`

for which you want to generate code.

This is the definition for the file `foo`

:

function out = foo x.y.z = @()'x.y.z is an anonymous function'; out = g(x); end function out = g(x) f = @x.y.z; out = f(); end

This is the definition for function `z`

:

function out = z out = 'x.y.z is a package function'; end

Generate a MEX function for `foo`

. Separately call both the
generated MEX function `foo_mex`

and the MATLAB function `foo`

.

```
codegen foo
foo_mex
foo
```

ans = 'x.y.z is an anonymous function' ans = 'x.y.z is a package function'

The generated code produces the first output. MATLAB produces the second output. Code generation resolves
`@x.y.z`

to the local variable `x`

that is
defined in `foo`

. MATLAB resolves `@x.y.z`

to `z`

, which is
within the package `x.y`

.

Generated code does not match the termination behavior of MATLAB source code. For example, if infinite loops do not have side effects, optimizations remove them from generated code. As a result, the generated code can possibly terminate even though the corresponding MATLAB code does not.

For variable-size N-D arrays, the `size`

function might return a
different result in generated code than in MATLAB source code. The `size`

function sometimes returns
trailing ones (singleton dimensions) in generated code, but
always drops trailing ones in MATLAB. For example, for an N-D array `X`

with
dimensions `[4 2 1 1]`

, `size(X)`

might return
`[4 2 1 1]`

in generated code, but
always returns `[4 2]`

in
MATLAB. See Incompatibility with MATLAB in Determining Size of Variable-Size N-D Arrays.

The size of an empty array in generated code might be different from its size in MATLAB source code. See Incompatibility with MATLAB in Determining Size of Empty Arrays.

Deleting all elements of an array results in an empty array. The size of this empty array in generated code might differ from its size in MATLAB source code.

Case | Example Code | Size of Empty Array in MATLAB | Size of Empty Array in Generated Code |
---|---|---|---|

Delete all elements of an
m-by-n array by using the `colon` operator
(`:` ). |
```
coder.varsize('X',[4,4],[1,1]);
X = zeros(2);
X(:) = [];
``` | `0-by-0` | `1-by-0` |

Delete all elements of a row
vector by using the `colon` operator
(`:` ). |
```
coder.varsize('X',[1,4],[0,1]);
X = zeros(1,4);
X(:) = [];
``` | `0-by-0` | `1-by-0` |

Delete all elements of a
column vector by using the `colon` operator
(`:` ). |
```
coder.varsize('X',[4,1],[1,0]);
X = zeros(4,1);
X(:) = [];
``` | `0-by-0` | `0-by-1` |

Delete all elements of a column vector by deleting one element at a time. |
coder.varsize('X',[4,1],[1,0]); X = zeros(4,1); for i = 1:4 X(1)= []; end | `1-by-0` | `0-by-1` |

If your MATLAB code contains a binary element-wise operation that involves a single type operand and a double type operand, the generated code might not produce the same result as MATLAB.

For such an operation, MATLAB casts both operands to double type and performs the operation with the double types. MATLAB then casts the result to single type and returns it.

The generated code casts the double type operand to single type. It then performs the operation with the two single types and returns the result.

For example, define a MATLAB function `foo`

that calls the binary element-wise
operation `plus`

.

function out = foo(a,b) out = a + b; end

Define a variable `s1`

of single type and a variable
`v1`

of double type. Generate a MEX function for
`foo`

that accepts a single type input and a double type
input.

s1 = single(1.4e32); d1 = -5.305e+32; codegen foo -args {s1, d1}

Call both `foo`

and `foo_mex`

with inputs
`s1`

and `d1`

. Compare the two results.

ml = foo(s1,d1); mlc = foo_mex(s1,d1); ml == mlc

ans = logical 0

The output of the comparison is a logical `0`

, which indicates
that the generated code and MATLAB produces different results for these inputs.

The generated code might not produce the same floating-point numerical results as MATLAB in these:

When computer hardware uses extended precision registers

The generated code might not produce exactly the same pattern of
`NaN`

and `Inf`

values as MATLAB code when these values are mathematically meaningless. For
example, if MATLAB output contains a `NaN`

, output from the
generated code should also contain a `NaN`

, but not necessarily
in the same place.

The bit pattern for `NaN`

can differ between MATLAB code output and generated code output because the C99 language
standard that is used to generate code does not specify a unique bit pattern for
`NaN`

across all
implementations. Avoid comparing bit patterns across different implementations,
for example, between MATLAB output and SIL or PIL output.

In a floating-point type, the value `0`

has either a positive
sign or a negative sign. Arithmetically, `0`

is equal to
`-0`

, but some operations are sensitive to the sign of a 0
input. Examples include `rdivide`

, `atan2`

,
`atan2d`

, and `angle`

. Division by
`0`

produces `Inf`

, but division by
`-0`

produces `-Inf`

. Similarly,
`atan2d(0,-1)`

produces `180`

, but
`atan2d (-0,-1)`

produces `-180`

.

If the code generator detects that a floating-point variable takes only integer
values of a suitable range, then the code generator can use an integer type for the
variable in the generated code. If the code generator uses an integer type for the
variable, then the variable stores `-0`

as `+0`

because an integer type does not store a sign for the value `0`

. If
the generated code casts the variable back to a floating-point type, the sign of
`0`

is positive. Division by `0`

produces
`Inf`

, not `-Inf`

. Similarly,
`atan2d(0,-1)`

produces `180`

, not
`-180`

.

There are other contexts in which the generated code might treat
`-0`

differently than MATLAB. For example, suppose that your MATLAB code computes the minimum of two scalar doubles `x`

and `y`

by using `z = min(x,y)`

. The corresponding
line in the generated C code might be `z = fmin(x,y)`

. The function
`fmin`

is defined in the runtime math library of the C
compiler. Because the comparison operation `0.0 == -0.0`

returns
`true`

in C/C++, the compiler's implementation of
`fmin`

might return either `0.0`

or
`-0.0`

for `fmin(0.0,-0.0)`

.

The `coder.target`

function returns different values in
MATLAB than in the generated code. The intent is to help you determine
whether your function is executing in MATLAB or has been compiled for a simulation or code generation target.
See `coder.target`

.

Before code generation, at class loading time, MATLAB computes class default values. The code generator uses the values that MATLAB computes. It does not recompute default values. If the property definition uses a function call to compute the initial value, the code generator does not execute this function. If the function has side effects such as modifying a global variable or a persistent variable, then it is possible that the generated code might produce different results than MATLAB. For more information, see Defining Class Properties for Code Generation.

When you assign a value to a handle object property, which is itself a property of another object, and so on, then the generated code can call set methods for handle classes that MATLAB does not call.

For example, suppose that you define a set of variables such that
`x`

is a handle object, `pa`

is an object,
`pb`

is a handle object, and `pc`

is a
property of `pb`

. Then you make a nested property assignment, such
as:

x.pa.pb.pc = 0;

In this case, the generated code calls the set method for the object
`pb`

and the set method for `x`

. MATLAB calls only the set method for `pb`

.

The behavior of handle class destructors in the generated code can be different from the behavior in MATLAB in these situations:

The order of destruction of several independent objects might be different in MATLAB than in the generated code.

The lifetime of objects in the generated code can be different from their lifetime in MATLAB.

The generated code does not destroy partially constructed objects. If a handle object is not fully constructed at run time, the generated code produces an error message but does not call the

`delete`

method for that object. For a System object™, if there is a run-time error in`setupImpl`

, the generated code does not call`releaseImpl`

for that object.MATLAB does call the

`delete`

method to destroy a partially constructed object.

For more information, see Code Generation for Handle Class Destructors.

See Incompatibilities with MATLAB in Variable-Size Support for Code Generation.

`double`

Converting a string that contains multiple, consecutive unary operators to
`double`

can produce different results between MATLAB and the generated code. Consider this
function:

function out = foo(op) out = double(op + 1); end

For an input value `"--"`

, the function converts the string
`"--1"`

to `double`

. In MATLAB, the answer is `NaN`

. In the generated code, the
answer is `1`

.